Letter – Isaac Jones, 4 December 1862

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Letter written by Private Isaac B. Jones of Company C, 3rd Battalion, 18th U.S. Infantry, to his cousin Helen Sofield, from Belotes Ford near Cairo, TN. Jones mentions that the mail had been captured several times in the last few months and is unreliable. He describes the hard marching from Winchester, TN to Bowling Green, KY. They caught up with General Braxton Bragg but General Don Carlos Buell held back, and Bragg escaped.They pursued Bragg’s forces to Springfield. Jones writes in great detail about the Battle of Perryville, including descriptions of the heavy artillery. The following day he walked the battlefield and describes the carnage he saw, including the surgeons amputations of many arms and legs. Jones concludes by writing longingly of his family.


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Belotes ford near Cairo, Tenn.  Dec 4th, 1862

Dear Cousin:

     I received a letter from you a little more than a month ago, I think, and allow me to say that I was very glad indeed to hear from you, for I had not received any word from any of my folks for a long time. I received one letter from my wife since I last wrote to you. She and Susie [daughter] were well. I had been looking for a letter from you for quite a length of time, and had almost came to the conclusion that you had not received my letter. Our mail have been captured, here and in Ky. several times within the last three months. So there is not very much dependence to be placed in them now. Well, cousin, we have some sharp times, and awful hard marching since I last wrote to you. We have marched over 800 miles, including our flanking movements, since we left Winchester, Tenn. We marched from Decherd, Tenn. a distance of 20 miles to reinforce Gen. Shouph. He was expecting to be attacked almost every hour. We did not get the order till evening. Then we started and marched nearly all night with nothing but blankets and rations. It rained hard, and was very cold and disagreeable. We had nothing but dry crackers and a little fat meat to eat, and only half rations at that. We got here the next forenoon and laid in line of battle two days. We had no fighting except some skirmish and picket fighting. We then moved on, with our whole force, near Pelham, Tenn. We expected there for sure to

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have a general action, but the enemy evaded us. We then marched to Murphreesboro on a forced march a distance of 65 miles. We rested there 20 hours and started in the evening, marched all night, and continued on till we arrived at Nashville, Tenn., a distance of 32 miles. We done all this marching on half rations and scarcely water enough to drink. We guarded the bridge of the Cumberland River at N[ashville] 7 days. Then we received another order for another forced march to Bowling Green, Ky.’ We made that in three days, a distance of 69 miles just in time to catch Bragg and his force of about 80,000. But Gen. Buell would not leave us at them, but kept us back two days, and Bragg made his escape again, after being allowed to take 4,400 of our men prisoners, and paroling them. Co. K, 2d Batt. out of our regt. was taken there, and the duce of it was, it was just a full company. They had just came into the service – consequently green, although well drilled. (I will resume our journey) After the enemy had two days’ the start of us, Buell, the old “traitor,” concluded to leave us go on the pursuit of the Confederate forces. The men were a good deal discouraged, but marched well. The fact of the business is, the marching we made has never been equaled in the U.S. We were 8 days without running water to drink, but twice. All the rest of the time we had to drink water out of mud holes in the road, and ponds in the fields. The water in some of the ponds was all green on the top, but we got so very dry that would drink almost anything in the shape of water, and we had nothing but dry crackers and a very little meat to eat, and coffee to drink. We never get beans or rice on a march for want of time to cook them. The day after we got to Louisville, Ky. There was

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325,000 Union troops bivouacked there. We rested there a short time and started after Bragg, Buckner & Kirby Smith’s forces. We went by the way of Shepherdsville, Bardstown, Springfield, etc. We marched 9 miles before we got to Springfield without a halt. All the time as fast as we could possibly walk, and part of the time on a double quick. There the Rebels opened fire upon us with their artillery. But ours proved too much for them. They had to retreat. Our brigade was in the advance and our regt. was in the advance of the brigade, so you see we were thrown in the hottest of the fire. We fought them back from ½ past 11 till night. The next day there was some skirmish fighting, but the third day they took a stand this side of a creek, they having the choice of the ground and all the water. So you see we had to fight them back for water. The general action commenced on the morning of the 8th of October about three o’clock, and both sides fought their best till after dark. Our brigade was held back as a reserve, but were called into action a short time before sundown. So that we were under heavy fire at least an hour and a half. Our battery took its position and opened up with incredible fury. Night was growing fast upon us, and the combat grew every minute more ferocious. The flashes of the artillery was blinding, above, around, in front. Bombs, solid shot, canister and minie balls flew like hail whizzing & exploding in every direction. The shrieks and groans of the dying and wounded, added to the horror & confusion of the moment, made up altogether a scene of consternation and dismay  enough to

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appall the stoutest heart. I was over part of the battlefield the second day after the fight, & the ground was literally strewn with the dead & wounded. I seen one place where the surgeons were at work with the wounded. They then had a pile of legs and arms about four feet high. I seen one poor fellow with the whole of his underjaw shot off He was living yet, but never could [say] anything; and others equally as badly wounded. One man in our regt. had his leg taken off, another was shot through the lungs, & another had both of his arms blown off, & face & breast burned all into a crisp. The battle was fought at and near Perryville, Ky., and it is called the battle of Chaplin Hills.

I was very glad to hear that cousin Alfred was so well situated. I only hope his regt. can stay where they are. If they should be ordered out on a few such chases after the Rebels as we have, he will begin to have a poor opinion of soldiering. I think, however, that the most of these new regts. will escape these hard marches. We have actually marched as high as 32 m[iles] a day, on half rations, with rifle accouterments, and 60 rounds of cartridges. You were saying you wished me to write to cousin Alfred. I don’t feel myself at liberty to open the correspondence. It would be entirely contrary to our discipline. If the capt. would write to me, I would be most happy to answer to the best of my ability, and give him all the particulars of the movements of the Army of the Ohio. We have 20 companies now in our regt., and three new ones ready to join us. Our regt. is different from the volunteers, we are divided in three battalions. I would rather be in a volunteer regt., on account of their not being so strict as the regulars. I would like to write more, but don’t feel able. I have been sick for several days. I am afraid my constitution will not bear up much longer. I have not much to live for, but my dear little daughter. If I could but see her once more I would feel better satisfied, but it is more than I expect. Give my love to your children, and accept the same for yourself. Tell Alfred I wish to be remembered. From your affectionate cousin,             Isaac B. Jones

Direct: Co. C, 3rd Batt./18th U.S. Infty./ 1st Division 3rd

        Brigade/ Gallatin, Tenn.   

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Please answer this immediately if you deem it worthy. Direct to Gallatin, Tenn. this time, but at any other time you may direct to Louisville, Ky. It will always be forwarded. I would be very happy to receive a letter from cousin Alfred.


Isaac B. Jones was a carpenter from Williamsport, PA. He originally enlisted with Captain Joesph E. Ulman’s Battery of Light Artillery PA Volunteers at the age of 27. The company was discharged March 7th, 1862 and Jones re-enlisted with the 18th U.S. Infantry. He was killed in action on December 31, 1862 at the Battle of Murfreesboro.

Alfred J. Sofield was a clerk/justice of the peace in Wellsboro, PA when he enrolled as a Union Army Officer. He served in the Civil War as Captain and commander of Company A of the 149th PA Volunteer Infantry. During the first day of the Battle of Gettysburg, he was stationed along Chambersburg Pike north of the McPherson Farm. His unit under artillery fire from the Confederate batteries on Herr Ridge, and was struck by a round, which killed him as well as Private Edwin D. Dimmick and Corporal Nathan H. Wilcox.

Letter – John Morris, 28 June 1863

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Letter written by Private John A. Morris of Company B, 126th OH Infantry, to friends, from Maryland Heights near Harper’s Ferry. Morris writes how he longs for peace so that he and others may return home. The previous day, General Joseph Hooker ordered out two regiments and some artillery. General William H. French is currently in command at Harper’s Ferry. Morris heard that another division was ordered to Antietam, and he supposes there will be news of something happening in Virginia or Pennsylvania. He writes that the Confederates have been firing off their guns from a distance for fear of the Union’s heavy artillery. Morris addresses a rumor that his company was taken prisoner and killed. He thinks the war will come to a close within six months.


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Meriland Hights [Maryland Heights]

near Harper’s Ferry, Va June 28/ 63

                     Sunday morning

Dear Friends

This morning while sitting here in my tent my mind runs back to some past times when peace was in our land, and we enjoying ourselves as civilized people. But now it is different. A war is waging in our land. But we must look and hope for the future. hope that peace may once more be restored to our once happy land, and that we soldiers may all be permitted to see our once happy homes and friends therein. I am longing for that time to come. Then if I should live, can sit around the old family circle and have something better to eat, and hope right smart better cooks than we have here. I, for my part, am getting

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tired of cooking. Things is on the stir. On yesterday evening 2 regiments and some artillery was ordered out, we do not know where. General Jos. Hooker    was here on yesterday, and gave such orders. He is not here now. French has taken command of the forces at Harper’s Ferry, and it constitutes the part of the right wing of Hooker’s army & is considered or kept as strong reinforcement.

This morning I understood that one division was ordered to go to the old Antietam ground for some purpose. I think against this week rolls round you will hear of something being done in Va. or Penn. The Rebs are supposed to be fortifying the old Antietam battleground and South Mountain. Our cavalry pitches in some Rebs every day. Yesterday they caught 50-odd, and some wagons, ammunition, whiskey, etc. I think this raid is going to put an end to this war. Those Rebs we fetched from Winchester said it had to go one way or the other inside of 2 months. I understand they are getting up into

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the north a good piece. If they come into Ohio, you must kill or capture every one of them. It don’t look like as if they had as much sense as a brick, the way they are doing now. Our pickets yesterday could see some of them riding around at a distance, and last night could hear them firing off their guns. But they did not come very close upon us, for they are afraid of some things [heavy artillery] we have fixed upon Md. Heights, and other places around. I reckon you have heard of Capt. W. B. Kirk leaving his company. If he is at home I want you to tell me, tell what the people think of him around there. If I was there I could talk about something a little with you. But don’t say anything about it now. Pap, I have heard that you heard our regiment was all taken prisoners and cut to pieces. This was only a part of Co. I, and some stragglers taken. I don’t know of any one in our regiment who got killed. It will be in the Chronicle, if so. We are going to have

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inspection this evening by Gen. French. He is going to review his army in marching time. The boys are all able well, with the exception of Geo. Harris. He is not very well. My health is pretty good now. Well, mother, how are you getting along? I hope pretty well, for I know when you have not got letters from me regular, and things being in such an uproar you would be uneasy, if not almost sick. Rest easy and take things that may, for I think things will come to a close in 6 months time. The Rebs is going to get one of the biggest whippings ever they got. Well, Callie, how are you getting along? Having a good time, I reckon. I would like mighty well to take drive with you today, but I can’t do it, I guess. Tell Vorhees and George I send my love to them and I want to see them the worst kind of a way. I want to see all of you. I want you to write. Tell me all the news about the talk of our new governor, and conscripts, etc., how you are getting along with your work, harvest, & etc. Give my love to all and yourselves, especially to Aunt Ann. Direct to Harpers Ferry, Va., Md. Hights., Co. B, 126th Regt. O.V.I, as ever, your son,                                 John A. Morris.   

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I have not heard from you for a long time; never since the retreat. Write soon. I want to hear badly


John A. Morris enlisted at age 19 on August 11, 1862 in Company B of the 126th OH Volunteer Infantry. He was wounded at Spotsylvania, VA, May 12, 1864, and was mustered out of the service May 18, 1865. As a part of Major General William H. French’s 8th Army Corps, the 126th OH was ordered to Washington, D.C. on July 1, 1863, then to Frederick, MD, and it participated in the pursuit of Lee’s army July 5th -23rd.